Biology IX | Improvement in Food Resources | Questions & Answers

Improvement in Food Resources | Questions & Answers

1. What are genetically modified crops?

Ans.

By introducing a gene with required characters into a crop for its improvement is called genetically modified crop.

2. State the differences between compost and vermicompost

Ans.

The compost is obtained by decomposition of organic waste like animal excreta plant waste etc. Naturally due to decomposition by bacteria and when to hasten the process of decomposition, earthworms are added to this organic matter to obtain compost; this process is called vermicompost.

3. What causes disease in plants?

Ans.

It is caused by pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses.

4. What are the different ways/methods of hybridization?

Ans.

Hybridization can be of the following types:

(a) Intervarietal between different varieties of crops.

(b) Interspecific – between two species of same genus.

(c) Intergeneric – between two different genera.

5. What are the main characters required in a crop during its improvement practices?

Ans.

The useful characters that are required in a crop during its improvement are:

(a) Disease resistance

(b) Response to fertilizers

(c) Product quality (d) High yield.

6. State the differences between manure and fertilizer.

Ans.

 

Manure

Fertilizer

1.

It consists of organic matter.

It consists of inorganic matter.

2.

Prepared from animal excreta and chemicals.

It is prepared commercially from plant waste.

3.

Its use causes no pollution.

It causes pollution in soil and water.

7. Name few varieties of bees used for commercial honey production.

Ans.

Apis cerana indica – Indian bee

A. dorsata – Rock bee local variety

A. florae – The little see

A. mellifera – Italian bee variety

8. What is organic farming?

Ans.

Organic farming may be defined as the production of unpolluted plants products by the use of manures, biofertilizers, biopesticides with healthy cropping system, like crop rotation, mixed cropping, intercropping, etc. and without the use of chemicals, like fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, etc. Biofertilizers include nitrogen fixing organisms– bacteria or blue green algae. Biopsticides are organisms or their extracts which repel or kill weeds, insects and other pests.

9. Name two rabi crops.

Ans.

Wheat, gram

10. What is the pasturage and how is it related to honey production?

Ans.

The pasturage means the flowers available to the bees for nectar and pollen collection. In addition to adequate quantities of pasturage, the kind of flowers available will determine the taste of the honey.

Solved NCERT Questions

1. Explain any one method of crop production which ensures high yield.

Ans.

One method used for crop production which ensures high yield is plant breeding. It is the science involved in improving the varieties of crops by breeding plants. The plants from different areas, places is picked up with desired traits and then hybridization or cross-breeding of these varieties is done to obtain a plant/crop of desired characteristics.

The high yield variety crop shows characteristics such as high yield, early maturation, less water requirement for irrigation, better quality seeds are produced, less fertilizers required, adapts itself to the environmental conditions.

2. Why are manure and fertilizers used in fields?

Ans.

They are major sources of nutrients of plants and therefore are used to ensure good vegetative growth (leaves, branches and flowers), giving rise to healthy plants, that results in high crop production.

3. What are the advantages of intercropping and crop rotation?

Ans.

Advantages of using intercropping are as following:

(i) It helps to maintain soil fertility.

(ii) It increases productivity per unit area.

(iii) It saves labour and time.

(iv) Both crops can be easily harvested and processed separately.

Advantages of using crop rotation are as following:

(i) It improves the soil fertility.

(ii) It avoids depletion of a particular nutrient from the soil.

(iii) It minimizes pest infestation and diseases.

(iv) It helps in weed control.

(v) It prevents change in the chemical nature of the soil.

4. What is genetic manipulation? How is it useful in agricultural practices?

Ans.

Genetic manipulation is a process of transferring (genes) characters that are desirable from one plant to another plant. This is done for production of varieties with desirable characteristics like profuse branching in fodder crops, high yielding varieties in maize, wheat, etc.

Agricultural practices of cultivation and yielding of crops are directly related to agronomic conditions. These conditions are based on weather, soil quality and water resources availability. Since weather conditions are unpredictable such as drought and flooding situations, therefore, crop varieties have been developed that can be grown in diverse climatic conditions.

5. How do storage grain losses occur?

Ans.

The factors responsible for loss of grains during storage are:

(i) Abiotic factors like (moisture present in food grains) humidity (of air) and temperature.

(ii) Biotic factors like insects, rodents, birds, mites and bacteria.

6. Name few varieties of bees used for commercial honey production.

Ans.

Good animal husbandry practices are beneficial to the farmers in the following ways:

(i) Improvement of breeds of the domesticated animals.

(ii) Increasing the yield of foodstuffs such as milk, eggs and meat.

(iii) Proper management of domestic animals in terms of shelter, feeding care and protection against diseases.

11. What are the benefits of cattle farming?

Ans.

Cattle farming is beneficial in the given ways:

(i) Milk production is increased by high yielding animals.

(ii) Good quality of meat, fibre and skin can be obtained.

(iii) Good breed o draught animals can be obtained.

12. For increasing production, what is common in poultry, fisheries and bee-keeping?

Ans.

Through cross breeding, the production of poultry, fisheries and bee keeping can be increased.

13. How do you differentiate between capture fishing, mariculture, and aquaculture?

Ans.

Capture Fishing: It is the fishing in which fishes are captured from natural resources like pond, sea, estuaries.

Mariculture: It is the culture of fishes in marine water on commercial basis. Varieties like prawns, oysters, bhetki, mullets are cultured for fishing.

Aquaculture: It is the production of useful, i.e., high economic value, aquatic plants and animals such as fishes prawns, crayfish, lobsters, crabs, shrimps etc. and sea weeds by proper utilization of available waters in the country. It is done both in fresh water and in marine water.

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