Chemistry X | Carbon and its Compounds | SOAPS AND DETERGENTS

SOAPS AND DETERGENTS

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Activity 4.10

  1. Take about 10 mL of water each in two test tubes.
  2. Add a drop of oil (cooking oil) to both the test tubes and label them as A and B.
  3. To test tube B, add a few drops of soap solution.
  4. Now shake both the test tubes vigourously for the same period of time.
  5. Can you see the oil and water layers separately in both the test tubes immediately after you stop shaking them?
  6. Leave the test tubes undisturbed for some time and observe. Does the oil layer separate out? In which test tube does this happen first?

This activity demonstrates the effect of soap in cleaning. Most dirt is oily in nature and as you know, oil does not dissolve in water. The molecules of soap are sodium or potassium salts of long-chain carboxylic acids. The ionic-end of soap dissolves in water while the carbon chain dissolves in oil. The soap molecules, thus form structures called micelles (see Fig. 4.12) where one end of the molecules is towards the oil droplet while the ionic-end faces outside. This forms an emulsion in water. The soap micelle thus helps in dissolving the dirt in water and we can wash our clothes clean (Fig. 4.13). Can you draw the structure of the micelle that would be formed if you dissolve soap in a hydrocarbon?

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Chemistry X | Carbon and its Compounds | Properties of Ethanoic Acid

Properties of Ethanoic Acid

Ethanoic acid is commonly called acetic acid and belongs to a group of acids called carboxylic acids. 5-8% solution of acetic acid in water is called vinegar and is used widely as a preservative in pickles. The melting point of pure ethanoic acid is 290 K and hence it often freezes during winter in cold climates. This gave rise to its name glacial acetic acid.

The group of organic compounds called carboxylic acids are obviously characterised by a special acidity. However, unlike mineral acids like HCl, which are completely ionised, carboxylic acids are weak acids.

Activity 4.7

  1. Compare the pH of dilute acetic acid and dilute hydrochloric acid using both litmus paper and universal indicator.
  2. Are both acids indicated by the litmus test?
  3. Does the universal indicator show them as equally strong acids?

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