Biology IX | Improvement in Food Resources | Questions & Answers

Improvement in Food Resources | Questions & Answers

1. What are genetically modified crops?


By introducing a gene with required characters into a crop for its improvement is called genetically modified crop.

2. State the differences between compost and vermicompost


The compost is obtained by decomposition of organic waste like animal excreta plant waste etc. Naturally due to decomposition by bacteria and when to hasten the process of decomposition, earthworms are added to this organic matter to obtain compost; this process is called vermicompost.

3. What causes disease in plants?


It is caused by pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses.

4. What are the different ways/methods of hybridization?


Hybridization can be of the following types:

(a) Intervarietal between different varieties of crops.

(b) Interspecific – between two species of same genus.

(c) Intergeneric – between two different genera.

5. What are the main characters required in a crop during its improvement practices?


The useful characters that are required in a crop during its improvement are:

(a) Disease resistance

(b) Response to fertilizers

(c) Product quality (d) High yield.

6. State the differences between manure and fertilizer.






It consists of organic matter.

It consists of inorganic matter.


Prepared from animal excreta and chemicals.

It is prepared commercially from plant waste.


Its use causes no pollution.

It causes pollution in soil and water.

7. Name few varieties of bees used for commercial honey production.


Apis cerana indica – Indian bee

A. dorsata – Rock bee local variety

A. florae – The little see

A. mellifera – Italian bee variety

8. What is organic farming?


Organic farming may be defined as the production of unpolluted plants products by the use of manures, biofertilizers, biopesticides with healthy cropping system, like crop rotation, mixed cropping, intercropping, etc. and without the use of chemicals, like fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, etc. Biofertilizers include nitrogen fixing organisms– bacteria or blue green algae. Biopsticides are organisms or their extracts which repel or kill weeds, insects and other pests.

9. Name two rabi crops.


Wheat, gram

10. What is the pasturage and how is it related to honey production?


The pasturage means the flowers available to the bees for nectar and pollen collection. In addition to adequate quantities of pasturage, the kind of flowers available will determine the taste of the honey.

Solved NCERT Questions

1. Explain any one method of crop production which ensures high yield.


One method used for crop production which ensures high yield is plant breeding. It is the science involved in improving the varieties of crops by breeding plants. The plants from different areas, places is picked up with desired traits and then hybridization or cross-breeding of these varieties is done to obtain a plant/crop of desired characteristics.

The high yield variety crop shows characteristics such as high yield, early maturation, less water requirement for irrigation, better quality seeds are produced, less fertilizers required, adapts itself to the environmental conditions.

2. Why are manure and fertilizers used in fields?


They are major sources of nutrients of plants and therefore are used to ensure good vegetative growth (leaves, branches and flowers), giving rise to healthy plants, that results in high crop production.

3. What are the advantages of intercropping and crop rotation?


Advantages of using intercropping are as following:

(i) It helps to maintain soil fertility.

(ii) It increases productivity per unit area.

(iii) It saves labour and time.

(iv) Both crops can be easily harvested and processed separately.

Advantages of using crop rotation are as following:

(i) It improves the soil fertility.

(ii) It avoids depletion of a particular nutrient from the soil.

(iii) It minimizes pest infestation and diseases.

(iv) It helps in weed control.

(v) It prevents change in the chemical nature of the soil.

4. What is genetic manipulation? How is it useful in agricultural practices?


Genetic manipulation is a process of transferring (genes) characters that are desirable from one plant to another plant. This is done for production of varieties with desirable characteristics like profuse branching in fodder crops, high yielding varieties in maize, wheat, etc.

Agricultural practices of cultivation and yielding of crops are directly related to agronomic conditions. These conditions are based on weather, soil quality and water resources availability. Since weather conditions are unpredictable such as drought and flooding situations, therefore, crop varieties have been developed that can be grown in diverse climatic conditions.

5. How do storage grain losses occur?


The factors responsible for loss of grains during storage are:

(i) Abiotic factors like (moisture present in food grains) humidity (of air) and temperature.

(ii) Biotic factors like insects, rodents, birds, mites and bacteria.

6. Name few varieties of bees used for commercial honey production.


Good animal husbandry practices are beneficial to the farmers in the following ways:

(i) Improvement of breeds of the domesticated animals.

(ii) Increasing the yield of foodstuffs such as milk, eggs and meat.

(iii) Proper management of domestic animals in terms of shelter, feeding care and protection against diseases.

11. What are the benefits of cattle farming?


Cattle farming is beneficial in the given ways:

(i) Milk production is increased by high yielding animals.

(ii) Good quality of meat, fibre and skin can be obtained.

(iii) Good breed o draught animals can be obtained.

12. For increasing production, what is common in poultry, fisheries and bee-keeping?


Through cross breeding, the production of poultry, fisheries and bee keeping can be increased.

13. How do you differentiate between capture fishing, mariculture, and aquaculture?


Capture Fishing: It is the fishing in which fishes are captured from natural resources like pond, sea, estuaries.

Mariculture: It is the culture of fishes in marine water on commercial basis. Varieties like prawns, oysters, bhetki, mullets are cultured for fishing.

Aquaculture: It is the production of useful, i.e., high economic value, aquatic plants and animals such as fishes prawns, crayfish, lobsters, crabs, shrimps etc. and sea weeds by proper utilization of available waters in the country. It is done both in fresh water and in marine water.


Biology IX | Improvement in Food Resources | Part 4

Improvement in Food Resources | Part 4

2. Poultry Farming

The poultry industry with its production in the form of eggs and meat is of particular importance in providing balanced diet for the human population. Poultry birds serve human beings in various ways. They are not only efficient converters of agriculture by products, particularly of wastes into high quality meat but also providing egg, feathers and rich manure. Proper management of poultry includes improved methods of hatching rearing, housing, sanitation, prevention from diseases, and a sound marketing a arrangement.

An egg laying poultry is called egger or layer and the poultry reared for obtaining meat is called chicken or broiler. Poultry farming is undertaken basically to raise domestic fowl for egg production and chicken meat.

Poultry Breeders

In India, available poultry breed are included in following three categories :

1. Desi or indigenous breeds. We have only four pure breeds of indigenous or desi fowls. They are Aseel, Kadaknath, Chattisgarh and Bursa.

2. Exotic breeds. Exotic breeds mean varieties of other countries or foreign breeds. There are present numerous exotic breeds of poultry which have been successfully acclimatized in India. The following two exotic breeds of poultry are most popularly used in our country :

(i) White Leghorn.

This very popular exotic breed of fowl produces long white eggs. Since white leghorn has small body size (body weight 2.7 kg of cock and 2.0 kg of hen), so need less feed for its maintenance. Thus, its farming proves quite economical.

(ii) Rhode Island Red.

This breed of fowl was developed on the farm of Rhode Island in U.S.A. This is a dual type of breed, it is fairly good egg layer and also meat yielding (broiler). Some other exotic breeds of fowls in our country are Black Minorcha, Plymouth and Light Sussex.

(iii) Cross breeds or Improved breeds of poultry.

The majority of the present day chickens used for production of egg and meat are the crossbreed blocks. In India, a number of research programmes are going on to produce improved quality commercial egg layers and broilers through cross breeding. Some improved crossbreed strains of fowl are HH260, IBL-80, B-77 and IIS-82.

Variety Improvement

The programmes of cross breeding between Indian (indigenous) and foreign (exotic) breeds for variety improvement are focused to develop new varieties for the following desirable traits :

1. Quantity and quality of chicks;

2. Dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production for summer adaptation capacity / tolerance to high temperature;

3. Low maintenance requirement;

4. Improvement in hen housed for egg production and reduction in the size of the layer with ability to utilize more fibrous, cheap diet formulated using agricultural by products.

3. Fish Production

Fisheries are the occupation of catching fish. It has been pursued by human beings from the times immemorial. Fisheries primarily started as capture fisheries in natural waters such as seas, rivers, lakes, ponds, estuaries, etc. Cultural fisheries or fish culture is a recent addition to fisheries. Production of fish in a given body of water such as a pond, lake or reservoir, using scientific methods of feeding, breeding, etc., so as to enhance the output is called fish culture.

Based on the water sources of fish production, following three types of fisheries can be recognized.

1. Marine Fisheries. They include capture fisheries of oceans and seas.

Ex. 1. Pomphrets 2. Mackerels 3. Tuna 4. Sardines 5. Bombay duck 6. Eel

2. Fresh water fisheries. They include capture and culture fisheries in freshwater systems such as rivers, canals, lakes, reservoirs, tanks, ponds and paddy fields.

3. Brackish water fisheries. They include fishing activities in brackish water (slightly salty) such as estuaries (last part of river that gets tidal water from sea), lagoons (shallow salt water lakes separated from sea bank, coral reef, etc.) and mangrove swamps (tropical trees growing in mud of sea-shore).

Fresh water fisheries and brackish water fisheries are collectively called inland fisheries.

4. Bee-Keeping

Honey is widely used and therefore bee-keeping for making honey has become an agricultural enterprise. Since bee-keeping needs low investments, farmers use it as an additional income generating activity. In addition to honey, the beehives are a source of wax which is used in various medicinal preparations.

The local varieties of bees used for commercial honey production are Apis cerana indica, commonly known as the Indian bee, A. dorsat, the rock bee and A. florae, the little bee. An Italian bee variety, A. mellifera, has also been brought in to increase yield of honey. This is the variety commonly used for commercial honey production.

The Italian bees have high honey collection capacity. They sting somewhat less. They stay in a given beehive for long periods, and breed very well. For commercial honey production, bee farms or apiaries are established.

The value or quality of honey depends upon the pasturage, or the flowers available to the bees for nectar and pollen collection. In addition to adequate quantity of pasturage, the kind of flowers available will determine the taste of the honey.